Wealth Management

Private Equity Investments in Defined Contribution (DC) Plans

Private equity funds invest in privately held companies whose stock is not traded on public exchanges. Private equity fund managers expect to increase the value of their investments by providing capital and acumen for the purpose of improving performance/value of these companies.

The Department of Labor (DOL) recently released an “information letter” regarding the potential inclusion of private equity investments in DC plans. The DOL indicated that it will allow DC plans to offer indirect investment in private equity funds in certain circumstances but, questions remain, are they a good fit for your plan participants and what are the fiduciary liability implications?

The DOL guidance only covers allocation decisions made by the fund’s asset managers when private equity would be one of multiple categories of equity investments within the fund (e.g., target date funds). The guidance does not cover a defined contribution plan allowing individual participants to invest their accounts directly in private equity investments. Further, the guidance was clear that investments in private equity investments present substantial legal and operational issues for fiduciaries of ERISA individual account plans. One issue concerns the typical multiyear holding period for portfolio companies, and the challenge in providing an accurate stock valuation before a sale.

The DOL letter states that plan fiduciaries considering a private equity investment option in multi-asset class funds should consider:

  • Whether the fund has managers with “the capabilities, experience, and stability” to handle 
    private equity
  • Whether the proportion of the fund’s allocation to private equity investments is appropriate based on the “cost, complexity, disclosures, and liquidity” considerations
  • Whether the fund has “adopted features related to liquidity and valuation” that give participants the ability to move their allocations “consistent with the plan’s terms”
  • The fund suitability in light of the plan’s “participant profile,” including their ages, contribution and withdrawal tendencies

These considerations are somewhat interpretational and can lead to issues which create potential fiduciary liability.

When considering the inclusion of any investment the plan fiduciary must act with skill, care, and due prudence in determining the suitability for participants. This responsibility applies even more importantly for private equity investments, whether a single or multi asset investment option.

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